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Thursday, 13 June 2019

Everything You Need To Know About Chandrayaan 2, India’s Second Moon Mission

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GSLV-Mk III / Chandrayaan-2 Mission

Everything You Need To Know About Chandrayaan 2, India’s Second Moon Mission

Image result for chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2


Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission, has three modules namely Orbiter, Lander (Vikram) & Rover (Pragyan). The Orbiter and Lander modules will be interfaced mechanically and stacked together as an integrated module and accommodated inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launch into earth bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at the predetermined site close to lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments.
All the modules are getting ready for Chandrayaan-2 launch during the  window of July 09, to July 16, 2019, with an expected Moon landing on September 06, 2019. 

Chandrayaan-2
Mission typeLunar Orbit,lander,rover
OperatorIndian Space Recharch Centre


Mission durationOrbiter: 1 year
Lander: >15 days
Rover: >15 days
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerISRO
Launch massCombined: 3,877 kg (8,547 lb)
Payload massOrbiter: 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)
Lander:1,471 kg (3,243 lb)
Rover: 27 kg (60 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date16July 2019
RocketGSLV MK|||
Launch site        Satish Dhawan Space Centre
ContractorISRO
Lunar orbiter
Orbital insertionSeptember 06, 2019 (Planned)
Orbit parameters
Periapsis100 km (62 mi)
Apoapsis100 km (62 mi)
CHANDRAYAAN MISSION                   
 

History


On 12 November 2007, representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan-2 project. ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander.
The Indian government approved the mission in a meeting of the Union Cabinet, held on 18 September 2008 and chaired by  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.
Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 per schedule, the mission was postponed in January 2013, and rescheduled to 2016 because Russia was unable to develop the lander on time. Roscosmos later withdrew in wake of the failure of the Fobos-Grunt mission to Mars, since the technical aspects connected with the Fobos-Grunt mission were also used in the lunar projects, which needed to be reviewed. When Russia cited its inability to provide the lander even by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission independently.
The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was first delayed to April and then to October to conduct further tests on the vehicle. On 19 June 2018, after the program's fourth Comprehensive Technical Review meeting, a number of changes in configuration and landing sequence were planned for implementation, pushing the launch to the first half of 2019. Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019. Chandrayaan-2 launch is tentatively scheduled for 14 July 2019, with the landing expected on 6 September 2019.

Design

Chandrayaan - 2
GSLV Mk III

The mission is planned to fly on a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) with an approximate lift-off mass of 3,877 kg (8,547 lb) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island. As of June 2019, the mission has an allocated cost of 978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which includes 603 crore for space segment and 375 crore as launch costs on GSLV Mk III. Chandrayaan-2 stack would be initially put in a Earth parking orbit of 170 km perigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle. It will then perform orbit raising operations followed by trans lunar injection using its own power.

Orbiter

The orbiter will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi).The mission will carry five instruments on the orbiter. Three of them are new, while two others are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1. The approximate launch mass will be 2,379 kg (5,245 lb). The Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) will conduct high-resolution observations of the landing site prior to separation of the lander from the orbiter. Interfaces between the orbiter and its GSLV Mk III launch vehicle have been finalised. The orbiter's structure was manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and delivered to ISRO Satellite Centre on 22 June 2015.

Pragyan rover


The mission's rover is called Pragyan (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञानlit. 'Wisdom'). The rover's mass will be about 27 kg (60 lb) and will operate on solar power.The rover will move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meter distance on the lunar surface at the rate of 1 cm per second,performing on-site chemical analysis and sending the data to the lander, which will relay it to the Earth station.
  • Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision using two NAVCAMs in front of rover will provide the ground team controlling the rovers a 3D view of the surrounding terrain and help in path planning by generating a digital elevation model of the terrain.
  • Control and motor dynamics - The rover will have six wheels, each driven by an independent electric motor. Four of the wheels will also be capable of independent steering. A total of 10 electric motors will be used for traction and steering.

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