STUDY SHORT TRICKS

You can find here many important study short tricks of general knowledge which are very useful to crack government competition exams. History, Political, Geography and Economics study material short tricks are available on this blog. Current affairs,previous year question papers, motivation and Inspirational IAS Stories are also available on this blog.

Thursday, 13 June 2019

Everything You Need To Know About Chandrayaan 2, India’s Second Moon Mission

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GSLV-Mk III / Chandrayaan-2 Mission

Everything You Need To Know About Chandrayaan 2, India’s Second Moon Mission

Image result for chandrayaan 2

Chandrayaan 2


Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission, has three modules namely Orbiter, Lander (Vikram) & Rover (Pragyan). The Orbiter and Lander modules will be interfaced mechanically and stacked together as an integrated module and accommodated inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle. The Rover is housed inside the Lander. After launch into earth bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at the predetermined site close to lunar South Pole. Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments.
All the modules are getting ready for Chandrayaan-2 launch during the  window of July 09, to July 16, 2019, with an expected Moon landing on September 06, 2019. 

Chandrayaan-2
Mission typeLunar Orbit,lander,rover
OperatorIndian Space Recharch Centre


Mission durationOrbiter: 1 year
Lander: >15 days
Rover: >15 days
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerISRO
Launch massCombined: 3,877 kg (8,547 lb)
Payload massOrbiter: 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)
Lander:1,471 kg (3,243 lb)
Rover: 27 kg (60 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date16July 2019
RocketGSLV MK|||
Launch site        Satish Dhawan Space Centre
ContractorISRO
Lunar orbiter
Orbital insertionSeptember 06, 2019 (Planned)
Orbit parameters
Periapsis100 km (62 mi)
Apoapsis100 km (62 mi)
CHANDRAYAAN MISSION                   
 

History


On 12 November 2007, representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan-2 project. ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander.
The Indian government approved the mission in a meeting of the Union Cabinet, held on 18 September 2008 and chaired by  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.
Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 per schedule, the mission was postponed in January 2013, and rescheduled to 2016 because Russia was unable to develop the lander on time. Roscosmos later withdrew in wake of the failure of the Fobos-Grunt mission to Mars, since the technical aspects connected with the Fobos-Grunt mission were also used in the lunar projects, which needed to be reviewed. When Russia cited its inability to provide the lander even by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission independently.
The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was first delayed to April and then to October to conduct further tests on the vehicle. On 19 June 2018, after the program's fourth Comprehensive Technical Review meeting, a number of changes in configuration and landing sequence were planned for implementation, pushing the launch to the first half of 2019. Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019. Chandrayaan-2 launch is tentatively scheduled for 14 July 2019, with the landing expected on 6 September 2019.

Design

Chandrayaan - 2
GSLV Mk III

The mission is planned to fly on a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) with an approximate lift-off mass of 3,877 kg (8,547 lb) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island. As of June 2019, the mission has an allocated cost of 978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which includes 603 crore for space segment and 375 crore as launch costs on GSLV Mk III. Chandrayaan-2 stack would be initially put in a Earth parking orbit of 170 km perigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle. It will then perform orbit raising operations followed by trans lunar injection using its own power.

Orbiter

The orbiter will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi).The mission will carry five instruments on the orbiter. Three of them are new, while two others are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1. The approximate launch mass will be 2,379 kg (5,245 lb). The Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) will conduct high-resolution observations of the landing site prior to separation of the lander from the orbiter. Interfaces between the orbiter and its GSLV Mk III launch vehicle have been finalised. The orbiter's structure was manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and delivered to ISRO Satellite Centre on 22 June 2015.

Pragyan rover


The mission's rover is called Pragyan (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञानlit. 'Wisdom'). The rover's mass will be about 27 kg (60 lb) and will operate on solar power.The rover will move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meter distance on the lunar surface at the rate of 1 cm per second,performing on-site chemical analysis and sending the data to the lander, which will relay it to the Earth station.
  • Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision using two NAVCAMs in front of rover will provide the ground team controlling the rovers a 3D view of the surrounding terrain and help in path planning by generating a digital elevation model of the terrain.
  • Control and motor dynamics - The rover will have six wheels, each driven by an independent electric motor. Four of the wheels will also be capable of independent steering. A total of 10 electric motors will be used for traction and steering.

Tuesday, 11 June 2019

Ummul Kher – A girl from the slums who achieved her dream of becoming an IAS officer

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The touching story of Ummul Kher – A girl from the slums who achieved her dream of becoming an IAS officer


Ummul Kher
This is the story of Ummul Kher – a 28-year-old fragile girl with an angelic smile, who fought all odds for her education and proved herself worthy. Ummul is soon to join the Indian Administrative Service (IAS).
Ummul Kher

For Ummul, as much as she’d like it to be, her story is not a fairytale. Poverty and a genetic disorder have been her constant companion. The sky in Ummul’s world had been grey for the longest time. But nothing could shatter the woman’s hard will and determination. She knew she was destined to reach the stars and that the strings of fate were entangled around her delicate fingers. She was in charge of her destiny and nothing could come in between.

Education as top priority

Ummul was born and brought up in a slum in New Delhi. She had drainage for a river and the stink of garbage for atmosphere. Her dreams seemed just that – a dream, a distant one. Her father owned a tiny tea stall which barely met their needs. Ummul was then enrolled in a government school where she had completed her education up till grade 8. But when things did not seem to be working for the family, they decided to shut shop and move back to their hometown in Rajasthan.
Determined not to give up on her education, Ummul risked being abandoned by her family to stay back and focus on her studies. She wanted to become something in life and she knew education was the sole answer. Her parents were outright against her decision and therefore left her to fend for herself.
Because Ummul had performed exceptionally well in her studies, she received help from a teacher and got admitted in a private school. She got herself a small hut in the neighborhood of Trilokpuri and took tuitions in her free time to pay for necessities. Her students were kids of auto rickshaw drivers and iron smiths so she earned a meagre salary of INR 50 – 100 per student. It wasn’t much but she was doing just fine.
Ummul Kher

She passed 12th with flying colors and got admitted in Gargi College of Delhi University. She went ahead to finish her masters in International Relations from Jawaharlal Nehru University. Here, she cracked the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) because of which she got a regular amount of INR 25,000 per month. Suddenly her luck seemed to be taking a turn. She didn’t have to work long hours to struggle for money and her efforts seemed to finally be paying off.

A bumpy path ridden with hurdles

But poverty wasn’t her only enemy. She also had to overcome her disorder. Ummul suffers from a genetic disorder called Fragile Bone Disorder. Her bones are weak and any minor injury could cause extreme pain and discomfort. She has suffered 16 fractures, 8 surgeries, and has even been on a wheelchair for months because of it but this only uplifted rather than dim her spirits

Living the dream

Despite all her shortcomings, Ummul has shown her true colors. She qualified for the UPSC exams in her very first shot with an overall Indian ranking of 420. This was the moment she had dreamt of and she worked her way to achieve it. She is ever so determined and proud of finally being able to realize her dream of becoming an IAS officer.

(HISTORY, T-1) Short Trick To Learn All The Nine Gems Of King Akbar Court

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HISTORY 

हम आपको जो GK Tricks बताने जा रहे हैं वो मुगल सम्राट अकबर से संबंधित है ! आप सभी जानते हैं कि अकबर के शासनकाल में उसके 9 गुणवान दरबारी थे जिन्हें अकबर के नवरत्न के नाम से जाना जाता है ! तो आज हम आपको इन नवरत्नो के नाम याद रखने की ट्रिक बताऐंगे , लेकिन इससे पहले हम इनके बारे में थोडी सी जानकारी बताते हैं जो परीक्षा में अक्सर पुंछा जाता है !
Nine Gems Of King  Akbar 



तो दोस्तो अब हम आपको इन नवरत्नों के नाम याद करने की GK Tricks बता रहे हैं 
GK Tricks
BAT BAT MDH ( इस ट्रिक को याद करने के लिये आप सोचिये कि MDH मसाले बाले चाचाजी के पास एक बैट (BAT) है जिससे वो मसाला कूटते हैं )
Explanation
B = Birbal (बीरबल )
A = Abul Fazal ( अबुल फजल )
T = Tansen ( तानसेन )
B = Bhagvandas (भगवान दास)
A = Abdul Rahim Khane Khana (अब्दुल रहीम खाने खाना )
T = Todarmal (टोडरमल )
M = Manshingh (मानसिंह)
D = Do Pyaja Mulla (मुल्ला दो प्याजा)
H = Hakim Hukkam (हकीम हुक्काम)


1. बीरबल – परम बुद्धिमान राजा बीरबल अकबर केयुद्ध-सलाहकार थे। इनके बचपन का नाम महेशदासथा !  हास्य-परिहास में इनके अकबर के संग काल्पनिक किस्से आज भी कहे जाते हैं। बीरबल एक कवि भी थे। दीन ए इलाही धर्म को स्वीकार करने बाले प्रथम व अंतिम हिन्दू शासक बीरबल थे !
2. अबुल फजल – इतिहासज्ञ अबुल फजल ने अकबर के शासन काल की प्रमुख घटनाओं को कलमबद्ध किया था, उन्होंने अकबरनामा और आइन-ए-अकबरी की रचना की थी। पंचतंत्र का फारसी भाषा में अनुवाद अबुल फजल ने अनवर ए सादात नाम से किया ! इनका जन्म आगरा में हुआ।
3. तानसेन – संगीत सम्राट तानसेन अकबर के दरबार के एक विलक्षण संगीतज्ञ थे। इनके बचपन का नामरामतनु पाण्डेय था ! अकबर ने इन्हें कंठाभरण वाणीविलास की उपाधी दी थी ! 

4. राजा भगवान दास – भगवानदास आमेर के राजा भारमल का पुत्र था। उसकी बहन का विवाह अकबर के साथ हुआ था। अकबर ने उसे 5000 का मनसबदार बना दिया था । उसने अनेक महत्त्वपूर्ण युद्धों में भाग लिया था। वह एक सत्यवादी, साहसी और पराक्रमी व्यक्ति था।
5. अब्दुल रहीम खाने खाना – यह अकबर के दरबार में राजकवि थे !
6. राजा टोडरमल – मुगलकाल के स्वर्णिम काल यानी अकबर के दौर में दो हिन्दुओं बीरबल और राजा मान सिंह का बहुत जिक्र होता है, पर राजा टोडर मल का उस तरह से जिक्र नहीं होता। हालांकि वे भी अकबर के बेहद करीबी थे। वे उनके दरबार में राजस्व मंत्री मतलब दीवान थे।
7. राजा मानसिंह – राजा मानसिंह अकबर की सेना के मुख्य सेनापति थे ! कहा जाता है कि हिन्दुओं के प्रति अकबर के दृष्टिकोण को अधिक उदार बनाने में मानसिंह का महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान था। 
8. मुल्ला दो प्याजा – मुल्ला दो प्याजा अरब का रहने वाला था। हुमायूँ के समय वह भारत आया था। भोजन के समय दो प्याजा अधिक पसन्द होने के कारण, अकबर उसे दो प्याजा के नाम से सम्बोधित करता था। अपनी योग्यता और सम्राट् के प्रति निष्ठा के कारण वह भी अकबर के नौरत्नों में से एक बन गया था।

9. हकीम हुक्काम – हकीम हुक्काम , मुग़ल सम्राट अकबर का सलाहकार और नवरत्नों में से एक था।

(POLITY, T-2) Short Trick To Learn All The National Political Parties In India

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INDIAN POLITY

हम आपको एक ऐसी GK Trick बताने जा रहे है , जिसके माध्यम से आप भारत के मान्यता प्राप्त राष्ट्रीय राजनीतिक दलों ( National Political Parties in India ) को आसानी से याद रख पाऐंगे !
दी गई GK Trick की सहायता से आप सभी मान्यता प्राप्त राष्ट्रीय राजनीतिक दलों ( National Political Parties in India ) को याद रख पाऐंगे !



GK Trick –
मेरा भारत बहुजन का राष्ट्र कहलाता है
Explanation –
ट्रिकी वर्डदलचुनाव चिन्ह
मेरामार्क्सवादी कम्युनिष्ट पार्टीहंसिया, हथौडा, एवं तारा
भारतभारतीय जनता पार्टीकमल
बहुजनबहुजन समाज पार्टीहाथी
काकांग्रेस पार्टीपंजा
राष्ट्रराष्ट्रवादी कांग्रेस पार्टीघडी
कहलाताकम्युनिष्ट पार्टीहंसिया और बाली


Note –  दोस्तो भारत में 2016 तक इन 6 दलों को राष्ट्रीय दल के रूप में मान्यता प्राप्त थी , लेकिन 2016 में ममता बनर्जी की पार्टी तृणमूल कांग्रेस को राष्ट्रीय दल के रूप में मान्यता देने के कारण अब यह संख्या 7हो गई है !

(CURRENT AFFAIR) 16 June celebrating as Father's Day

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HISTORY OF FATHER'S DAY

History of Father's Day Festival as seen today is not even a hundred years old. Thanks to the hard work and struggle of Ms Sonora Louise Smart Dodd of Washington that just as we have set aside Mother's Day to honor mothers we have a day to acknowledge the important role played by the father. However, some scholars opine that Father's Day history is much older than we actually believe it to be. They say that the custom of honoring dad's on a special day is over 4,000 years old. There are a few more claims about the Father's Day origin about which we will learn in this page.



Earliest History of Father's Day

Scholars believe that the origin of Father's Day is not a latest phenomenon, as many believe it to be. Rather they claim that the tradition of Father's Day can be traced in the ruins of Babylon. They have recorded that a young boy called Elmesu carved a Father's Day message on a card made out of clay nearly 4,000 years ago. Elmesu wished his Babylonian father good health and a long life. Though there is no record of what happened to Elmesu and his father but the tradition of celebrating Father's Day remained in several countries all over the world.


FATHER'S DAY IN INDIA

The concept of celebrating Father's Day is very new in India. The idea of celebrating Fathers Day has been imported from western countries mainly US, perhaps less than a decade ago.
However, it is remarkable to note that the idea of observing a day in honor of fathers has been appreciated by Indians to a large extent. Today, millions of people in India observe Father's Day on the third Sunday of June by expressing gratitude for their father or men who are like father.

Father's Day Celebration in India

Father's Day in India
Father's Day celebration in India takes place in the same way as in UK or US though in a limited way. Awareness about Fathers Day festival is much greater in metropolitan cities and bigger towns due to the greater exposure of people to the western cultures in such places. But thanks to the rigorous advertising campaign launched by card companies and gift sellers the idea of celebrating Father's  day is fast catching on with people in smaller towns and cities of India.
Just as in UK and US people in India too, celebrate Father's Day by expressing gratitude and love for Papa. Children gift cards, flowers and other gifts of love to their dad to show their affection. Dining in restaurants or going out for picnic or movie is another common way of celebrating Fathers Day in India.
Several schools and cultural societies in India organize cultural programs on Father's Day. The idea behind such programmes is to inspire children to pay due respect to their dad and take care of them. Fathers are also encouraged to spend quality time with their children and instill in them noble values and manners.


History of Father's Day in US

Modern version of Father's Day celebration originated in United States of America and thereafter the tradition spread in countries around the world. The world owes thanks to Ms Sonora Louise Smart Dodd a loving daughter from Spokane, Washington as it is because of her struggle that Father's Day saw the light of the day.

The idea of Father's Day celebration originated in Sonora's mind when she per chance listened to Mother's Day sermon in 1909. Fairly mature at the age 27, Sonora pondered if there is a day to honor mother then why not for father? Sonora felt strongly for fathers because of the affection she received from her own father Mr William Jackson Smart, a Civil War veteran. Sonora's mother died while childbirth when she was just 16. Mr Smart raised the newborn and five other children with love and care.
Inspired by Ms Anna Jarvis's struggle to promote Mother's Day, Ms Dodd began a rigorous campaign to celebrate Father's Day in US. The Spokane Ministerial Association and the local Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) supported Sonora's cause. As a result Spokane celebrated its first Father's Day on June 19, 1910. Though there was initial hesitation the idea gained gradual popularity all over US and Fathers Day came to be celebrated in cities across the country.

Looking at the heightened popularity of Father's Day in US, President Woodrow Wilson approved of this idea in 1916. President Calvin Coolidge too supported the idea of a national Father's Day in 1924 to, "establish more intimate relations between fathers and their children and to impress upon fathers the full measure of their obligations". After a protracted struggle of over four decades, President Lyndon Johnson signed a presidential proclamation declaring the third Sunday of June as Father's Day in 1966. Then in 1972, President Richard Nixon established a permanent national observance of Father's Day to be held on the third Sunday of June. Sonora Smart Dodd was honored for her contribution at the World's Fair in Spokane in 1974. Mrs. Dodd died in 1978 at age 96.

Monday, 10 June 2019

(POLITY, T-1) Short Trick To Learn The All President Of India In Sequence

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                     INDIAN POLITY    

भारत के राष्ट्रपतियों को क्रम से याद रखना एक कठिन 
कार्य है ! भारत के राष्ट्रपति की List को क्रम से याद करने के लिये हम आपको एक Trick  बता रहे है जिससे कि आपकोPresident of India की List आसानी से याद हो जायेगी !!   

                  GK Trick - भारत के राष्ट्रपति (President of India)

 भारत का राष्ट्रपति देश का सबसे सर्वोच्च पद और तीनों भारतीय सेनाओं का प्रमुख होता है तथा भारत के प्रथम नागरिक जाना जाता है। भारत के प्रथम नागरिक को हिन्दी में राष्ट्रपति और संस्कृत में राज्य का भगवान कहते है। संसद और राज्य के विधानमंडल के चुने हुए प्रतिनिधियों द्वारा देश के राष्ट्रपति का चुनाव किया जाता है।  नीचे भारत के सभी राष्ट्रपतियों की सूची उनके महत्वपूर्ण विवरण के साथ दी गयी है  – 

GK Trick 
” राजू की राधा जाकर गिरी फखरुद्दीन रेड्डी की जेल में,तब रमाशंकर नारायण की कलम से प्रतिभा निकलीप्रणब की “

  1. राजू– डॉ. राजेन्द्र प्रसाद (Dr. Rajendra Prasad)
  2. राधा– डॉ. सर्वपल्ली राधाकृष्णन (Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan)
  3. जाकर डॉ. जाकिर हुसैन (Dr. Zakir Hussain)
  4. गिरी– वाराहगिरि वेंकट गिरि (Varahgiri Venkat Giri)
  5. फखरूद्दीन– फखरूद्दीन अली अहमद (Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed)
  6. रेड्डी – नीलम संजीवा रेड्डी (Nilam Sanjeeva Reddy)
  7. जेल– ज्ञानी जैल सिंह (Gyani Zail Singh)
  8. रमा– रमाशंकर वेंकट रमण (R. Venkat Raman)
  9. शंकर– डॉ शंकर दयाल शर्मा (Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma)
  10. नारायण – के. आर. नारायणन (K. R. Narayanan)
  11. कलम – डॉ ए.पी.जे. अब्दुल कलाम (Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam)
  12. प्रतिभा – प्रतिभा देवी सिंह पाटिल (Pratibha Devi Singh Patil)
  13. प्रणव – प्रणव मुखर्जी (Pranab Mukharji)

U.S. offers India armed version of Guardian drone

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US approves sale of armed drones, offers missile defense systems to India


US has approved the sale of armed drones to India and has offered integrated air and missile defence systems

U.S. offers India armed version of Guardian drone



The Trump administration has approved the sale of armed drones to India and has offered integrated air and missile defence systems aimed at helping the country boost its military capabilities and protect shared security interests in the strategically important Indo-Pacific region.


The approval-cum-offer from the US came in the aftermath of the February 14 Pulvama terrorist attack in which 40 Indian soldiers were killed and the increasing militarisation and assertiveness of China the Indo-Pacific ocean.


According to the officials, the Trump administration is ready to offer its best defence technologies to India.

                           Armed Drones



"The United States approved the sale of the armed drones to India. We have offered integrated air and missile defense technology to India," a senior White House official told PTI.


The official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, did not reveal when the sale of the armed drones to India took place.

During the June 2017 meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Donald Trump, the US had agreed to sell surveillance version of the Guardian drones to India.

India was the first non-treaty partner to be offered a MTCR Category-1 Unmanned Aerial System – the Sea Guardian UAS manufactured by General Atomics.

PM Modi & President Trump 



While the deal is yet to see the light of the day, mainly because of the delay in decision making process by India in view of the general elections, the US in recent months informed New Delhi about its decision to sell armed version of the Guardian drones.


The ball is now in India's court, a defense industry source told PTI.


The deal, if it happens, could be in the range of over USD 2.5 billion, the industry source said.

Close on the heels of armed drones, which will have its implications in South Asia and Indo-Pacific region, the US has also offered its integrated defense missile capabilities to India.

While officials are tight-lipped about it, the offer is said to be about two of its latest systems: Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD), which is highly effective when used against long-range ballistic missiles and Patriot Missile defense system.


India, which has already signed an agreement with Russia to purchase S-400 missile defense system, is yet to respond to the American offer. The American offer, which came of its own, is currently being studied in New Delhi.


"We want India to have our best technology, and we want to see India improve its defense capabilities so that it can be a net provider of security in the broader Indo-Pacific region," the senior White House official, told PTI.

In a fact sheet on "US Security Cooperation with India" issued this week, the State Department joined the White House in trying to help strengthen its defense capabilities mainly due to the Indo-Pacific region.


"India plays a vital role in the US vision for a free and open Indo-Pacific," said the fact sheet issued by the Bureau of Political Military Affairs of the State Department.


Towards this end, in 2016, the US designated India as a Major Defense Partner.

Commensurate with this designation, India last year was granted Strategic Trade Authorization tier 1 status, which allows India to receive license-free access to a wide range of military and dual-use technologies that are regulated by the Department of Commerce, it said.

With a Communications, Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) and other enabling agreements now in place, US-India defense trade cooperation continues to expand, it said.


Some of the recent top defense sales to India include: MH-60R Seahawk helicopters (USD 2.6 billion), Apache helicopters (USD 2.3 billion), P-8I maritime patrol aircraft (USD 3 billion), and M777 howitzers (USD 737 million).

President Donald Trump 



The State Department is also pushing for Lockheed Martin F-21 and Boeing F-18/A – two state-of-the-art fighter aircraft that India is currently evaluating.


"These platforms provide critical opportunities to enhance India's military capabilities and protect shared security interests in the Indo-Pacific region," the State Department fact sheet said.

"We are now reaching agreements that we did not have before that allow us to consider sales that were incomprehensible five years ago," a senior State Department official told a group of reporters last week.


The choices that are made now will establish the framework for the future, the official said.

"We certainly have the ambitions for the broadest possible, deepest possible military relationship with India," said the official requesting anonymity.